What is Internet of Things (IoT)? How does it work?

The Internet has taken over every aspect of our lives in the last 10-15 years. Numerous phenomena, from the economy to everyday life, are now directly linked to the internet. But when we think about the general structure of the internet and how it is accessible, first of all, computers and devices that outweigh the technical aspects such as smartphones and tablets come to life in our minds. When we expand this general perception and think that other physical objects used for many different purposes also have internet connections, we come across the concept of the internet of things. So what is the internet of things? How does this technology work? In which areas is it used? What advantages and disadvantages does it have?

What is the Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things finds its place in resources in the form of IoT. This abbreviation consists of the initials of the phrase Internet of Things in English. The term Internet of Things draws attention as it actually describes what this technology does.

The Internet of Things technology is based on the logic that the goods or objects we use in our daily life exchange data with each other over the internet connection. The coordination of the objects within the scope with each other is one of the most distinctive features of this technology. Objects that are part of the system collect data from other units with the help of the sensors on them. It transfers its data to other devices with systems such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. In this way, an internet-like network structure emerges. Some devices in the network also have the capacity to process the data they receive or transmit. The technology that emerged with the internet of things has been used more and more actively with each passing day, both in the industrial field and in order to meet personal needs.

What Are the Components of Internet of Things Systems?

IoT components refer to the elements necessary for the establishment of such structures. The five key components of IoT systems are:

  • Smart Devices and Sensors: Data exchange within the system is carried out thanks to the sensors in the devices. These parts enable the collection or detection of surrounding data.
  • Getaway: There must be a network established in order for the data in question to reach other devices. Gateways enable this communication, regulate network availability and create the necessary security environment for the transaction with encryption methods.
  • Cloud (Cloud Technology): The size of the data exchanged within the system can become very large after a point. In such cases, cloud technology steps in and makes it possible to use data. While data is uploaded to the cloud in real-time, it is also pulled from the cloud by other devices. The importance of cloud technology for the internet of things is great for business as a kind of communication center. Because in this way, data transfer becomes more reliable and faster.
  • Analysis: This component allows the entire system or a single device to predict potential problems. In this way, necessary precautions can be taken in a more practical way. Errors and related malfunctions and costs are minimized.
  • Advanced User Interface: Having easy-to-use interfaces for devices is one of the factors that help the spread of the Internet of Things. Because, the most important operations can be done in a short time with the least effort, thanks to the devices controlled via simple and touch interfaces. This means saving in many aspects.

What are the Features and Importance of Internet of Things Technology?

The Internet of Things is a technology whose importance comes from its features. In other words, this system has become very important today, thanks to its beneficial qualities. Because of this, IoT systems have reached a wide range of uses, from industrial engineering to logistics. This paved the way for many developments in these fields and the phenomenon of digital transformation in general. The features of the internet of things can be listed as follows:

  • Connectivity that ensures the coordinated operation of devices and systems
  • Thanks to this system, objects that make our life easier in many ways
  • Data crucial to decision making
  • Communication that prepares the environment for data transfer
  • Information resulting from the transferred data
  • Action-based on knowledge
  • An ecosystem that creates a rich and complex information network among countless units.

How the Internet of Things (IoT) Works

The Internet of Things needs the above-mentioned components to work. The first stream of the working process is that the devices collect data from their environment with the help of sensors. The collected data is then transmitted to the cloud via the network. Software already in the cloud can process the data and consequently take no action .can to decide. Here lies the basis of the advantage of IoT applications. Because these systems can perform the necessary operations without the need for any human intervention through their qualifications, hardware, and software. At this point, the human factor is to make various arrangements and adjustments in order to ensure that the system performs the required operations without any problems. Said adjustments can be easily carried out through the practical panels and interfaces of such devices.

Where is the Internet of Things Applications Used?

The usage areas of the internet of things are spread over a wide range. So much so that, as there are types of industrial internet of things, this technology can also be used in daily life for purely individual purposes. Now let’s take a closer look at where this technology is applied.

Internet of Things in Daily Life

Even if we are not aware of it, our daily life is full of examples of the internet of things. To be clear, smart thermostats, which keep the temperature of the houses at the ideal level, use this technology. Smart home applications are becoming more and more widespread based on such applications. Similarly, smart cities and the internet of things are two concepts that are in contact with each other. Because waste management systems, which are an important part of smart city systems, are an extension of the internet of things technology. With this application, the fullness of the garbage cans can be easily followed. Of course, the use of the Internet of Things in daily life is not limited to these. Vehicle tracking adapters, health monitors, security systems with sensors, and even game consoles benefit from this technology in different dimensions.

Internet of Things in Production

The clearest example of the internet of things in production is in the management of facilities where such processes are carried out. Many steps in management processes can be automated with this technology. This not only enables the machines to work more efficiently, but also helps to consume less energy and, accordingly, reduce costs.

Since this technology can monitor and analyze every moment of the production process in detail, it also significantly increases the quality of the final product. Because in this way, the disruptions experienced in the process are easily detected; Necessary adjustments and corrections are made as soon as possible.

Internet of Things in Logistics and Transportation

The Internet of Things also makes logistics management processes much more efficient. With such systems installed, the entire supply chain can be monitored and managed much more easily. Because in this way, it is possible to monitor where and in what condition the vehicle with any goods is in at that time. In addition, it is possible to take action to prevent possible problems when necessary. In other words, the Internet of Things is a very useful technology in terms of logistics.

The same applies to warehouse management. With the automation systems built on this technology, many details such as the current occupancy rate of the warehouses can be easily kept under surveillance. When we approach the subject in terms of transportation, it can be said that the internet of things is extremely effective in tracking company fleets.

Internet of Things in the Energy Sector

The energy sector can be divided into two parts, generation, and distribution. In addition to making production processes more effective and efficient, the Internet of Things also makes it possible to tailor distribution processes according to needs. Thus, it ensures that the produced energy is used more economically on a macro scale.

Internet of Things in Marketing

The Internet of Things and marketing are two topics that can be considered together. Because this technology is very functional for the establishment of structures called marketing automation. Thanks to this system, it is possible to track where, when, how, and to whom a company sells its products. In the light of the data provided by this follow-up, people in managerial positions have the opportunity to make more effective decisions about marketing activities. This, in turn, raises the level of success of the company in general. In addition, these systems, also called marketing 5.0, enable the automatic execution of after-sales processes. Thus, the conversion process of a potential customer into a loyal customer is controlled from the first point to the last.

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using the Internet of Things?

This technology brings many benefits. The advantages of the internet of things can be listed as follows:

  • Increases resource and asset efficiency.
  • It reduces the layout workload on people.
  • It enables more effective management of all types of operations.
  • It provides a lot of data to be used in business development processes.
  • Allocates the necessary conditions and information for more complete execution of marketing and customer relationship management.
  • It increases the opportunity to evaluate possible commercial opportunities.

Finally, let’s approach the issue from the negative side. The disadvantages of the internet of things are:

  • Incompatibility problems may arise in cases where there is no standardization in the equipment used.
  • Systems that are not well encrypted can introduce security vulnerabilities.
  • When such complex structures are not designed in detail, there is always a risk of confusion in the execution processes.

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